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Leptospirosis treatment

Effective management of leptospirosis involves a combination of antibiotic therapy and aggressive supportive therapy for patients with organ damage. It is generally accepted that antibiotic therapy must be initiated as soon as possible, preferably during the first 5 days of the appearance of symptoms Leptospirosis is treatable with antibiotics. If an animal is treated early, it may recover more rapidly and any organ damage may be less severe. Other treatment methods, such as dialysis and hydration therapy may be required Mild leptospirosis is treated with doxycycline, ampicillin, or amoxicillin. For severe leptospirosis, intravenous penicillin G has long been the drug of choice, although the third-generation.. The diagnosis based on these symptoms alone is usually influenza, though symptoms of conjunctival suffusion, skin rashes ( a transient rash of the skin and mucous membranes ) and the photophobic presentations of meningitis can cause suspicion of primary bacterial menengitis rather than leptospirosis. The infection often follows a biphasic course The majority of leptospirosis infections are self-limiting. Antimicrobial therapy shortens the duration of illness and reduces shedding of the organism in the urine. (See 'Clinical approach' above.) We suggest administration of antimicrobial therapy for treatment of patients with mild leptospirosis

Leptospirosis - Treatment algorithm BMJ Best Practic

Leptospirosis in Cats: Symptoms and Treatment - My Animals

Treatment in Pets Pets Leptospirosis CD

  1. TREATMENT OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN DOGS. Patients with suspected or confirmed leptospirosis should receive a combination of antimicrobial therapy (as outlined by consensus guidelines 18) and supportive care tailored to each patient according to severity of clinical signs and affected organ systems. If the index of suspicion for the disease is high, these treatments should not be delayed while awaiting confirmatory diagnosis
  2. Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection. For mild cases, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics, such as doxycycline or penicillin. Patients with severe leptospirosis will need to spend time in the..
  3. ated with urine of an infected animal (indirect contact)
  4. Antibiotics are the main treatment. The antibiotics most frequently used are a penicillin antibiotic (amoxicillin or ampicillin) or doxycycline. Antibiotics are usually prescribed as soon as possible after leptospirosis is diagnosed. In mild leptospirosis, antibiotic tablets may be all that is needed
  5. istration, antibiotics immediately inhibit multiplication and replication of the organism, thereby rapidly decreasing the chances of fatal complications

Beginning the correct antibiotics quickly is the best treatment for dogs with leptospirosis. Your veterinarian will also advise care for kidney or liver disease. Most dogs will require hospitalization, intravenous fluids, anti-nausea medications and careful monitoring The antibiotic doxycycline is effective in preventing leptospirosis infection. Human vaccines are of limited usefulness; vaccines for other animals are more widely available. Treatment when infected is with antibiotics such as doxycycline, penicillin, or ceftriaxone. The overall risk of death is 5-10% Leptospirosis is generally diagnosed by a blood test. Two blood tests (taken more than 2 weeks apart) are often required to make a diagnosis. What is the treatment for leptospirosis? Treatment with appropriate antibiotics as early as possible in the course of the illness is recommended to avoid the development of severe disease

Most cases of leptospirosis require aggressive intravenous fluid treatment, antibiotics and medications to reduce vomiting and treat other effects of kidney and liver failure. Depending on the severity of disease, treatment is not always successful when organ failure is present Leptospirosis is a zoonosis (an infectious disease which can be transmitted from animals to humans). Wild and domestic animals such as rodents, dogs, cattle, pigs, and horses are the reservoirs of the disease. Rats are the most common source of the disease worldwide. Leptospires may live for months to years within the kidneys of animals and are. This report offers a consensus opinion on the diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs, an important zoonosis. Clinical signs of leptospirosis in dogs relate to development of renal disease, hepatic disease, uveitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Disease may follow per Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death. However, leptospirosis clinical course is highly variable. Most cases involve flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, muscle aches, headaches) Treating Leptospirosis in Cats . If a cat is diagnosed with leptospirosis, antibiotics like doxycycline will be prescribed to kill the bacteria. Doxycycline can have serious side effects so it is not often prescribed unless necessary, especially in cats that also have kidney disease

Leptospirosis Treatment & Management: Approach

Doxycycline 100 mg, twice daily, for five to seven days is the first-line treatment for leptospirosis in the community setting. Amoxicillin 500 mg, three times daily, for five to seven days is an alternative. 1, 11 Treatment is most effective if antibiotics are initiated within five days of symptom onset, after. For severe leptospirosis, intravenous penicillin G has long been considered the drug of choice. Doxycycline is used for the treatment of mild leptospirosis. Ampicillin or amoxicillin are alternatives for the treatment of mild leptospirosis. Erythromycin is the therapy of choice in pregnant patients who are allergic to penicillin Leptospirosis can be treated by injection with penicillin, semisynthetic penicillins, and streptomycin in acutely ill animals. Abortions may be prevented and renal carriers eliminated by injection with streptomycin (25 mg/kg) as a single dose or for 3-5 days In a suspected outbreak, attempts to diagnose leptospirosis must be encouraged to enable prompt treatment. For outbreaks in remote or areas with poor access, local use of screening tests to detect antibody is helpful. When an outbreak of leptospirosis is suspected or identified, and if it has been possible to identify the serovar concerned, th Leptospirosis is caused by the bacteria leptospires that live in the kidneys and genitals of many types of animals. You can get infected through contact with the urine (pee) of these animals or water that is contaminated by infected urine

Treatment: Medical Professional's Guidance - Leptospirosis

Treatment strategies for leptospirosis depend on the organ systems affected by infection, and the severity and duration of clinical signs. Usually, antimicrobial therapy with penicillin or derivatives (ampicillin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, amoxicillin), cephalosporins, erythromycin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline or doxycycline. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease acquired through contact with infected animals or water contaminated with wastes of infected animals. It is more common in tropical regions but outbreaks are known to occur periodically throughout the world. Most cases of leptospirosis are mild in nature. Disease progression is described as 'biphasic' Leptospirosis treatment in cats requires keeping the cat stable and preventing aggravation of the disease. A veterinarian will most likely prescribe antibiotics, in addition to liquid therapy. Both can be administered either at home or at the veterinary clinic Treatment: Antibiotics duly prescribed by a physician. Early recognition and treatment within two days of illness to prevent complications of leptospirosis, so early consultation is advised. Prevention and Control: Avoid swimming or wading in potentially contaminated water or flood water

Treatment of Leptospirosis or Weil's Disease. Generally, it is very easy to cure leptospiral cases. Proper and timely use of antibiotics may prevent the severity of the disease. Therefore, if the resources are limited, start the treatment using relevant antibiotics. Complication Early Leptospirosis treatment in dogs. In serious leptospirosis cases, the dog may need to be hospitalized, and intravenous fluid may become necessary to ensure dehydration is in check. Moreover, if the infected dog has internal bleeding, then a blood transfusion might be necessary as well How To Treat Leptospirosis in Dogs Your doctor will tell you which treatments can cure the clinical signs of leptospirosis. For immediate treatment, the vet will prescribe a 5 mg/kg dosage of doxycycline Leptospirosis is an infectious disorder of animals and humans. It is the most common zoonotic infection in the world. It is easily transmitted from infected animals through their urine, either directly or through infected soil or water. [1][2]It can cause a self-limiting influenza-like illness or a much more serious disease. It is known as Weil disease, and it can progress to multiorgan. Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. It is uncommon for leptospirosis to present as a primary neurological disease. In this study of patients who presented with an acute neurological disease, and who were subsequently found to have leptospirosis, aseptic meningitis was the commonest manifestation. The other presentations were myeloradiculopathy, myelopathy.

Treatment of Leptospirosis in Horses. The treatment of equine leptospirosis are: Penicillin and streptomycin is the primary drug of choice. Steroids are used topically or subconjunctivally to reduce the inflammation in uveitis. Atropine sulfate is used to reduce blepharospasm, lacrimation, and photophobia If leptospirosis is suspected based on a patient's clinical features and history, empiric therapy should be started right away. Antibiotic treatment may induce a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Prevention. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease. [3] Prophylaxis against leptospirosis: doxycyclin

The treatment of leptospirosis depends on the severity. Most experts suggest withholding antibiotics in mild cases. These individuals will benefit from fluids as well as pain and fever control. In outpatient cases, antibiotics that may be used include doxycycline, amoxicillin, or ampicillin Leptospirosis Treatment for Dogs. The treatment for leptospirosis focuses on antimicrobial drugs to eliminate the bacteria and supportive care to help your dog fight the infection. Many dogs with leptospirosis will need to be hospitalized, especially during the first few days of treatment Leptospirosis is an infection caused by one of several pathogenic serotypes of the spirochete Leptospira. Symptoms are biphasic. Both phases involve acute febrile episodes; the 2nd phase sometimes includes hepatic, pulmonary, renal, and meningeal involvement. Diagnosis is by culture and serologic testing

Leptospirosis: Treatment and prevention - UpToDat

Treatment: Patients Guide - Leptospirosis Informatio

  1. The optimal treatment for leptospirosis is unknown. Penicillins or doxycycline traditionally have been the antimicrobials of choice for treatment of humans and dogs with leptospirosis. 107, 108 Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime are as efficacious as penicillin in human leptospirosis. 107,.
  2. Leptospirosis is an infection caused by leptospira bacteria. Galloway RL, Stoddard RA, Schafer IJ. Leptospirosis. CDC Yellow Book 2020: Health Information for the International Traveler
  3. Leptospirosis in cats FACT SHEET What is leptospirosis? n Leptospira spp. are mobile bacteria that can infect many mammalian species, including humans. Leptospirosis is considered a zoonotic disease (Weil's disease in humans). n Subclinically infected wild and domestic animals are reservoir hosts and a potential source of infection
  4. Canine leptospirosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by spirochaete bacteria of the Leptospira genus.. It mainly affects the dog's liver and kidneys. Leptospirosis and is also a zoonotic disease, meaning that it can be transmitted to humans and other mammals. Many wild animals are common carriers of Leptospira bacteria.. Find out in this AnimalWised article what is canine.
  5. Leptospirosis in Dogs. Dogs are the primary host of Leptospira serovars, and many other mammal species can also be infected. Clinical signs range from mild, subclinical infection to multi-organ failure and death. Diagnosis includes serologic testing and identification of leptospires in tissues, blood or urine
  6. ority of cases but carries a mortality of over 70%. These patients may present with severe acute respiratory failure. The differential diagnosis for diffuse alveolar haemorrhage is broad whereas prompt diagnosis and treatment can be lifesaving

Leptospirosis, one of the most important of neglected tropical diseases, is a common zoonosis in the tropics. Recent reports have demonstrated that pulmonary haemorrhage is one of the fatal complications of severe leptospirosis. In this report, we present a case of leptospirosis manifested with severe pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome successfully treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane. Leptospirosis Dr.T.V.Rao MD . We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads

Leptospirosis: Cause, Symptoms, Treatment, Preventio

Leptospirosis, also known as Weil's disease in humans, is a zoonotic disease caused by several species of spiral-shaped bacteria in the genus Leptospira.The organisms are motile and require moist environments to survive. Almost all mammals are susceptible to leptospirosis and clinical syndromes are well known in seals, sea lions, and black rhinoceros. Many strains have been isolated from. LEPTOSPIROSIS is a bacterial infection that can result in abortion, chronic uveitis, and/or kidney failure in horses and can also infect you, your pets, and other livestock Treatment options will depend on the severity and duration of the symptoms. Antibiotic treatment should be given if leptospirosis infection is strongly suspected. All patients with severe infection or signs of meningitis should be sent to hospital immediately. Finding out more. Good practice guide: Prevention and control of leptospirosis. Footnote Leptospirosis is sometimes misdiagnosed because clinical presentation can be non-specific and overlap with many other causes of acute febrile illnesses. In patients with risk factors for leptospirosis, a high index of clinical suspicion is important to ensure early diagnosis and treatment

Leptospirosis Vaccine, Symptoms, Treatment & Diagnosi

  1. Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection in horses caused by the Leptospira organism. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, which means it can be transmitted between animals and humans. Leptospirosis Average Cost. From 579 quotes ranging from $2,500 - $8,000
  2. istered to dogs with renal insufficiency and will clear the organism from the kidneys, making it effective in both.
  3. This infection can be caught by humans as well as by dogs. Learn about the leptospira organism, and how we test, treat and vaccinate against the disease (in dogs, that is)

Leptospirosis: Microbiology, Diagnosis, Treatment

  1. Mild forms of leptospirosis can be treated with antimicrobial therapy. A complete diagnosis from your physician is advisable. Treatment and medicine should be continued for a full course, despite initial recovery. This may help in killing any residual bacteria in the body. Your general physican will prescribe specific antibiotics for the infection
  2. Leptospirosis has been reported in Ethiopian cows (Moch et al., 1975) as cited in Yadeta et al. (2016) and is also one of the five priority zoonotic diseases identified in the country (Pieracci et al., 2016). Elelu et al. (2016) from Nigeria also reported leptospirosis as one of the common causes of abortion in cattle using participatory tools
  3. Treatment. Treating leptospirosis depends largely on the duration and severity of the symptoms. Leptospirosis is treatable with a course of antibiotics for 5 to 7 days in mild disease. The antibiotic of choice is penicillin or doxycycline. Doxycycline can also be used prophylactically in the short term in conditions where exposure risk is high

Leptospirosis Treatment Antibiotics. Antibiotics is the primary method of treatment of leptospirosis. When it comes to leptospirosis, the sooner one takes the antibiotics, the better the chances an individual has for recovery. The most common antibiotics are doxycycline or penicillin •Treatment with effective antibiotics should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis of leptospirosis is suspected and preferably before the fifth day after the onset of illness •The benefit of antibiotics after the fifth day of the disease is controversial - However, most clinicians treat with antibiotics regardless of the date of onse Leptospirosis treatment in Jamaica. Leptospirosis is a universally essential zoonotic illness caused by contamination with pathogenic leptospira bacterium. The disease normally causes damage to the kidney and liver which may be fatal in severe cases. Leptospirosis is present worldwide [1,2 What Is the Treatment? Leptospirosis should be treated with antibiotics (doxycycline, penicillin, or ceftriaxone). Is There a Vaccine? For dogs, there is. Only a few serovars (strains) are covered. For humans, an effective vaccine would need to cover a number of serovars and research has been undertaken for years What is the treatment of leptospira? Leptospirosis is treated with antibiotics such as penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. A child with leptospirosis needs hospitalization and treated and monitored for complications. Intravenous antibiotics may be required in the presence of more severe symptoms

Leptospirosis in Dogs: A Bacterial Disease That’s

Diagnosis and Treatment of Leptospirosis in Dog

Leptospirosis: Treatment, symptoms, and type

  1. Leptospirosis Treatment in Dogs. Diagnosis is made through urine and blood tests specifically for Leptospirosis. Once diagnosied, antibiotics are typically used to treat an active infection of Leptospirosis. Because this condition is so serious, it should be diagnosed and treated at your vet as soon as possible
  2. Leptospirosis is an acute anthropozoonotic infection that affects humans and animals in the last few decades due to being seriously neglected by countries located in a temperate climatic zone. The disease is often related to occupation. Therefore, the prevalence of the disease is much higher in males than in females. The usage of existing antibiotics is effective for the treatment of.
  3. SUMMARY Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection with a much greater incidence in tropical regions and has now been identified as one of the emerging infectious diseases. The epidemiology of leptospirosis has been modified by changes in animal husbandry, climate, and human behavior. Resurgent interest in leptospirosis has resulted from large outbreaks that have received significant.
  4. Treatment of leptospirosis. Antibiotics are used to treat leptospirosis, most often doxycycline and penicillin. These work best when given early in the disease. If you have the second phase, the treatment will depend on how you are affected. Prevention of leptospirosis. Vaccinating animals is an important step in preventing leptospirosis, but.
  5. ated water.. Leptospirosis is an infection caused by a group of bacteria called Leptospira.It is often mild but can be fatal. It is a zoonotic infection, which means it spreads between animals and people. Many mammals can be reservoirs for leptospirosis, but rats are the most common source of human infection
  6. ated by urine from infected animals
  7. In Arizona, leptospirosis has been an issue for dogs as well as humans. With many other deaths around the world, it is important to know the key leptospirosis symptoms. Also, learning the methods of leptospirosis treatment and leptospirosis prevention can save lives. What is Leptospirosis? Leptospirosis is a type of bacterial infection

Cattle with acute leptospirosis can be treated with the label dosage of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, penicillin, ceftiofur, tilmicosin, or tulathromycin. Leptospires also are highly susceptible to erythromycin, tiamulin, and tylosin, although these antibiotics cannot be relied on to remove the renal carrier state Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease (source of transmission in an animal) caused by bacteria called spirochete, known as Leptospira, whose natural reservoir is a variety of both wild and domestic. Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by spiral-shaped bacteria of the genus Leptospira (also referred to as leptospires). Leptospires may be either: pathogenic, which cause disease in animals or. Leptospirosis Reservoir (Maintenance Host) • Cattle • Cats (rare) • Dogs • Horses• Horses • Pigs • Rodents • Wildlife (opossum, raccoons, skunks and many other species) 11/27/2010 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14 15. What causes Leptospirosis • Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals Intravenous penicillin (1.5 MU every 6 hours) is a drug of choice for patients with severe leptospirosis, and ceftriaxone was shown to be equally effective (1 g IV, once daily). As with other spirochetal diseases, antibiotic treatment of patients with leptospirosis may cause a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction; however, this is rarely fatal

Leptospirosis often presents as a febrile illness of sudden onset. Because of an incubation period of a few days to weeks (2-20 days), initial presentation may be removed from original exposure. Common initial symptoms of leptospirosis are fever, myalgias, and gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. In the majority of reported cases, the acute phase. Treatment-Prevention Of Leptospirosis-Conclusion-Introduction-Leptospirosis is a water-borne disease that occurs in the rainy season. It is caused by an organism called Leptospira, which is shed by rats, dogs, cattle, etc., through their urine. These animals are the carriers of this organism and they harbor it in their urinary system without. Welcome to the introductory-level online course on leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonosis transmitted via contact with rodents, domestic animals and contaminated water. The disease is an emerging public health problem. This introductory level online course aims to equip frontline responders with introductory-level knowledge to manage outbreaks of leptospirosis. It offers the most relevant. Leptospirosis is an occupational disease of farmers and sewer and slaughterhouse workers. However, in the United States, most people become infected during outdoor activities when they come in contact with contaminated soil or fresh water, particularly while swimming or wading In acute leptospirosis, the affected animals without treatment may die within 2-3 days. The organism can be isolated from blood, kidney and urine. The most practical method for diagnosis of the disease is the assessment of antibody titers in acute and convalescent serum samples taken seven to ten days apart in clinically affected goats

Leptospirosis - Clinical guideline

Update: leptospirosis and unexplained acute febrile illness among athletes participating in triathlons--Illinois and Wisconsin, 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 1998 Aug 21. 47(32):673-6. [Medline] Leptospirosis infection commonly passes unnoticed, as shown by high seroprevalence rates in endemic areas. However, severe disease may rarely occur as exemplified in the case presented here. Complications including pulmonary haemorrhage, jaundice, renal impairment, myocarditis, and uveitis are all possibilities. The differential diagnosis of a returning traveller with pulmonary symptoms and. Outbreaks of leptospirosis may be a serious threat after severe flooding. Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with many wild and domestic animal reservoirs, including rats, mice, mongooses, pigs, dogs, and cattle. The cycle of transmission is shown in Figure 23.1. Following infection, animals often harbor leptospira in the kidneys

Leptospirosis. Zoonotic disease passed from many kinds of wild and domestic animals. Caused by a type of bacteria called a spirochete (leptospirainterrogans) Source: Dr. Scott Smith. This is how the bacteria looks under an electron microscope. Leptospirosis is caused by the bacteria Leptospira interrogans This review examines the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the UK, over the period 2006-10, the clinical features, diagnostic techniques and treatment. Introduction The recent high-profile death of a British Olympic rower from leptospirosis, acquired in the UK, has raised awareness among the public and the medical profession to this uncommon. Prompt treatment with antibiotics can save him, but even after recovery he still sheds the bacteria in his urine. It could take a month or two, sometimes longer, before he's no longer contagious. It's not just other dogs who are at risk. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning you can catch it from your canine Starting in the early 1990s, a resurgence of canine leptospirosis has been observed. The identified leptospiral serovars were atypical and included Leptospira pomona, grippotyphosa, autumnalis, hardjo, bratislava, and australis.In many areas canine leptospirosis remains the top differential diagnosis to consider in dogs presented with acute renal failure (or a close second to nephrotoxins.

Leptospirosis and Weil's Disease Symptoms and Diagnosis

Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness caused by Leptospira interrogans that affects humans and animals in all parts of the world. 327 The disease is biphasic, with a septicemic phase followed by an immune phase with antibody production and urinary excretion of the organism. 327 Most patients experience a mild anicteric illness, with fever. Treatment. If your dog has a mild case of lepto, your vet may be able to use antibiotics, a fluid drip and other medicines to help fight the disease.Sadly, if your dog becomes seriously ill with leptospirosis, you may need to consider putting them to sleep to stop them suffering.. Dogs with lepto must be treated in isolation to prevent them spreading it to other pets or hospital staff Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called Leptospira. The disease causes serious damage to the kidney and liver, and may be fatal in severe cases. Severely infected dogs show signs of lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, and increased thirst and urination. Dogs may develop jaundice. There are several tests for diagnosing leptospirosis, but. Leptospirosis is largely an animal-borne infection that can cause a wide range of symptoms, out of which some can be mistaken for other diseases. In this part of our COVID coinfection series, we bring to you the diagnosis and treatment interventions of leptospirosis occurring along with COVID-19

Scrub Typhus- Etiology, Epidemiology, Symptoms

Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic bacterial disease of worldwide public health importance. It affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife and is caused by different Leptospira serovars. Humans become infected through direct contact with the urine of infected animals, or through contact with water or soil that is contaminated with this infected urine The leptospirosis clinical diagnostic service is provided by the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory ( RIPL) at PHE Porton. Leptospirosis is diagnosed by either: PCR in the acute stage of. However, even with treatment, over 80% of dogs develop serious, short term kidney problems and some cases of leptospirosis can be fatal. Is Leptospirosis Contagious for Humans or Other Pets? Yes, leptospirosis is contagious for humans and other pets. While cats rarely contract lepto, it can easily infect other dogs as well as people Leptospirosis test strip set is easy and yields fast results. The leptospirosis test strip is a stick similar to a pregnancy test that's easy to use. The result is available within 15-20 minutes.

Leptospirosis in Dogs: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventio

Leptospirosis (Lepto) is a disease caused by Leptospira bacteria that can affect both animals and humans. In fact, it is currently the most common zoonotic disease in the world, that can be transmitted from animals to people Leptospirosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Philippines with an average of 680 leptospirosis cases and 40 deaths from the disease reported every year and a prevalence of 10/100 000.6 Disasters and extreme weather events are now recognised to precipitate epidemics.7 Leptospirosis has emerged as an important cause of pulmonary haemorrhage. Fluid therapy will be the primary treatment for leptospirosis in dogs to reverse any effects of dehydration. If your dog has been vomiting, an anti-vomiting drug, called an antiemetic , may be administered, and a gastric tube can be used to nourish your dog if the inability to eat or keep food down continues The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the most commonly used test for leptospirosis, but it is not perfect. In general, a definitive diagnosis requires that two blood samples drawn and tested 2-4 weeks apart demonstrate a four-fold increase in antibody levels. Obviously, treatment has to begin before the final results are in

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